A Visual and Educational Guide

India's Energy Prospects

This project aims to visualize and educate people on India's energy prospects, especially nuclear energy, and its impact on the environment and society.

︎ Photographs of Kudamkulam Plant protest by Amirtharaj Stephen

0. Context

A typical power plant generates around:
500MW of Power

If that plant runs for 24hrs it will generate:
500MW*24hrs = 12,000MWh of Energy

Mumbai demand is coming close to 4000MW during this summer. It’s average energy requirement is around 3500MW.

This means that Mumbai alone will require to have 3500MW/500MW = 7 (500MW capicity) power plant continuously running to meet its need. 


Power, refers to the rate at which work is done or energy is transferred or converted. It measures how quickly energy is used or generated.

If Power is the flow rate of water


Energy is the capacity or ability to do work. It is a fundamental property of matter and can exist in various forms, such as mechanical, electrical, thermal, or chemical energy.

Then Energy is the amount of collecte water in the bucket

1. Energy Outlook of India

Energy is fundamental to human development from industrial revolution to contribution to near-continuous economic growth of recent times, the part played by energy as an enabler of modern development and growth can only be described as 'Foundational'.

Growing Energy Demand,

Demand and Supply of Energy by sources

India's energy demand continues to surge as a result of rapid urbanization, industrial growth, and a growing population. The need for reliable and accessible electricity is at the forefront of this energy landscape.

Energy demand growth in India, 2019-2040

Different Case

An expanding economy, population, urbanisation and industrialisation mean that India sees the largest increase in energy demand of any country, across all of our scenarios to 2040. India’s economic growth has historically been driven mainly by the services sector rather than the more energy-intensive industrial sector, and the rate at which India has urbanised has also been slower than in other comparable countries.

Energy use per person, 1965-2021

Per Capita

Diverse Energy Sources To meet this surging demand, India embraces a diverse mix of energy sources. We witness the colorful array of solar panels harnessing the abundant sunlight, wind turbines gracefully spinning in the breeze, hydroelectric dams channeling the power of rivers, and thermal power plants producing electricity through coal, gas, and oil. Each source has its significance and impact on the energy landscape.

Power capacity in India by source, 2000‑2040

India Vision Case

2. India’s faces Energy Security hazards ahead

Domestic production and import bills for fossil fuels in India, 2010-2040

Stated Policies Scenario

  1. Growing Energy Demand: India's energy demand is increasing rapidly due to population growth, urbanization, and industrialization. Meeting this rising demand is a challenge, especially as it puts pressure on existing energy infrastructure and resources.
  2. Reliance on Imports: India heavily depends on imports to meet its energy needs, particularly for crude oil, natural gas, and coal. This reliance on imports exposes the country to global price fluctuations, geopolitical tensions, and supply disruptions, which can impact energy security.
  3. Volatile Oil Prices: Fluctuating oil prices in the global market can impact India's economy and energy security. Sudden spikes in oil prices can strain the country's balance of payments, increase the cost of imports, and affect the availability and affordability of energy sources.
  4. Limited Domestic Resources: While India has significant coal reserves, other domestic energy resources such as oil and natural gas are limited. This necessitates greater imports and can create vulnerabilities in the energy supply chain.
  5. Environmental Concerns: India is facing increasing environmental concerns related to air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and climate change. Balancing energy security with environmental sustainability is a major challenge as the country seeks to transition to cleaner and more renewable energy sources.
  6. Aging Energy Infrastructure: India's energy infrastructure, including power plants, transmission networks, and distribution systems, faces challenges of aging, inefficiency, and inadequate capacity. Modernizing and expanding the infrastructure is crucial for ensuring a reliable and secure energy supply.
  7. Energy Access and Equity: A significant portion of India's population still lacks access to reliable and affordable energy services. Ensuring energy access for all, especially in remote and rural areas, is an important aspect of energy security and socio-economic development.

3. Renewable Energy Revolution

India is making significant strides in renewable energy adoption. The country is tapping into its abundant solar resources, deploying vast solar power installations across the nation. Wind energy is also harnessed through the installation of wind turbines, showcasing the potential of harnessing the power of the wind. These renewable energy sources play a crucial role in reducing carbon emissions and fostering a greener energy landscape.

Changes in share of power generation in India,

Stated Policies Scenario

India’s market size and global share in clean energy technologies, 2019 & 2040

Stated Policies Scenario

A Project by Mohnish Landge